Modern vaccines containing subunit or recombinant antigens require adjuvants to enhance, shape, and extend immune responses.
Advantages of adjuvant effects include boosting immune responses in immunocompromised populations, broadening immune responses against various pathogenic strains, increasing the duration of immune response, and facilitating antigen dose reduction
TLR agonists are derivatives or synthetic analogues of pathogen components that activate immune responses.
Various adjuvants are currently approved or in clinical trials including particulate formulations and TLR agonists.
Classes of adjuvants include immunostimulatory molecules, particulate delivery vehicles, and combinations.
Adjuvants that stimulate potent cellular immune responses will be needed for protection against diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV.
Vaccine antigens and adjuvants must be appropriately formulated for optimal efficacy and stability.
Particulate formulations promote antigen/adjuvant uptake, sustained release, and multimeric presentation.
Modern approved adjuvants have an excellent safety profile and have been administered to hundreds of millions of people.