• Modern vaccines containing subunit or recombinant antigens require adjuvants to enhance, shape, and extend immune responses.
  • Advantages of adjuvant effects include boosting immune responses in immunocompromised populations, broadening immune responses against various pathogenic strains, increasing the duration of immune response, and facilitating antigen dose reduction
  • TLR agonists are derivatives or synthetic analogues of pathogen components that activate immune responses.
  • Various adjuvants are currently approved or in clinical trials including particulate formulations and TLR agonists.
  • Classes of adjuvants include immunostimulatory molecules, particulate delivery vehicles, and combinations.
  • Adjuvants that stimulate potent cellular immune responses will be needed for protection against diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV.
  • Vaccine antigens and adjuvants must be appropriately formulated for optimal efficacy and stability.
  • Particulate formulations promote antigen/adjuvant uptake, sustained release, and multimeric presentation.
  • Modern approved adjuvants have an excellent safety profile and have been administered to hundreds of millions of people.