• Typhoid fever (Enteric Fever) is a systemic febrile infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, or B. Respective infections are clinically indistinguishable.
  • Typhoid fever in the developed countries is almost exclusively a travel-related disease.
  • Antibiotic therapy becomes more complicated due to the spread of multi-drug resistance strains.
  • Two types of vaccine are commercially available; live attenuated oral vaccine (Ty21 strain) and injectable vaccine (Vi capsular polysaccharide).
  • Both vaccines are safe and well tolerated.
  • Their efficacy is about 50-70% for S. Typhi infection for 2-3 years.
  • None of them confer protection against S. Paratyphi infection.